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Precision Carbon Steel Pipe Pickling Process

In the rolling of seamless steel tubes, especially in the production process of precision seamless steel tubes, how does the acid pickling process proceed? Today, the mysterious veil is unveiled for you!

The use of an acid solution to remove scale and rust from steel surfaces is called pickling. Iron oxides (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeO, etc.), such as scales and rust, chemically react with the acid solution to form salts that are dissolved in the acid solution and removed. Pickling acids include sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and mixed acids.

Mainly impregnated pickling, jet pickling and acid paste rust removal. In general, the impregnation pickling method is generally used, and the spray method can be used in mass production. Steel parts are generally pickled in 10% to 20% (by volume) sulfuric acid solution at a temperature of 40°C. When the iron content in the solution exceeds 80g/L and the ferrous sulfate exceeds 215g/L, the acid solution should be changed. At room temperature, pickling of steel with 20% to 80% (by volume) hydrochloric acid solution is not prone to over-corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. Due to the great effect of acid on metal corrosion, corrosion inhibitors need to be added. After cleaning, the metal surface becomes silver white, and the surface is passivated to improve the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel.

In order to eliminate the surface adsorption of the diatomaceous earth carrier and reduce the tailing of the chromatographic peaks, the carrier must be acid-washed or alkali-washed prior to use. Pickling is carried out by dipping the carrier with 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 2 hours or heating with concentrated hydrochloric acid for 30 minutes, filtering, washing with water to neutrality, and drying. Pickling removes impurities such as iron, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium on the surface but does not remove silanol groups. Pickling supports are suitable for the analysis of acidic samples.

Degreasing and derusting the surface of precision seamless steel tubes to prepare for the next process. In the production process, the pickling process is to remove the surface oxide skin, after the lubrication treatment (carbon steel – phosphorus saponification, stainless steel – tallow lime, copper aluminum – oiled), with the old process – copper plating), and then Carry out deep processing. If the steel pipe is not pickled and there may be oxides and oil on the surface, the phosphating solution cannot remove them and the quality of phosphating will be reduced.


The Main Parts of Sanitary Butterfly Valves

If you have worked for a long time in the pharmaceutical and beverage industry, you know how important the butterfly valve is. But do you really know how they work? Better yet, do you know the main parts that make a butterfly valve?

Butterfly valves are used to control the flow of fluids. The structure and mechanism of a butterfly faucet are both similar to those of a ball valve. This means a spherical disc with a hole and a rod that passes through the disc so that when the faucet is open, the fluid supposed to flow through it will flow transparently. When the faucet is closed, the flow will obviously be blocked. There are four main parts that allow the sanitary butterfly valves to work: the body, the seat, the handle and the operator. Most high-performance butterfly valves have bodies that can easily fit between two pipes. This allows the valves to increase productivity. Keep in mind that not all valves are the same. Some are designed for drinks while others are designed for pharmaceutical drugs.

The technology behind sanitary butterfly valves has grown steadily over time. This explains why valves are used in many industries today. The regular butterfly, for example, comes from the group or rather family of quarter-turn faucets in a wide range of sizes for different uses and handling different degrees of temperature and pressure. The larger the size of a butterfly valve, the more pressure it can withstand. Each part of a butterfly valve contributes in one way or another to its usefulness and functionality. The pieces depend on each other. In other words, the valve may not work at all if a part is damaged or develops a glitch. The two most important parts are:

• Disc – The valve incorporates the use of a large rotating disc as it is a control device. It serves as the main fluid passage that the faucet controls. A first use of the disc was mainly to control the flow of water in the plumbing systems. This is logical because the valve is designed to be used to isolate and regulate the jet of water and other fluids. Keep in mind that the faucet can also be used to control the entry and exit of air in car carburetors.

• Seat – The seat uses the inference adjustment between the edge of the disc and the seat to ensure that the valve stops. The seat can be stuck to the body or can be stuck. The seat materials can be made of polymers or metal. The metal is mainly used when the valve has to withstand extreme temperatures.

Adamant Valves design and manufacture a wide range of stainless steel sanitary valves and fittings such as sanitary butterfly valves, sanitary ball valves, sanitary check valves, sanitary sight glasses, and sanitary unions, etc. They are widely used in the dairy, food, beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and other industrial markets.


Purpose of Tensile Testing and Its Use in the Plastic Industry

One of the most elementary tests that can be performed on a product is the tensile test to check the breaking resistance of a product. A test specimen is kept under tension to practice opposing forces acting upon opposite faces both located on the same axis that attempt to pull the specimen apart. These tests are simple to set and complete and reveal many characteristics of the products that are tested. These tests are measured to be fundamentally the reverse of a compression test.

Purpose of this test

Usually, this test is designed to run until the specimen breaks or fails under the specific load. The values that are calculated from this type of test can vary but are not limited to tensile strength, elongation, ultimate strength, modulus of electricity, yield strength, and strain hardening. The measurements taken during the test reveal the characteristics of a material while it is under a tensile load.

Tensile Testing for Plastics

Composites and Plastic are polymers with substances added to improve the performance or reduce costs. Plastic may be pressed or cast or extruded into sheet, film, or fibre reinforced plate, glass, tubes, fibre, bottles and boxes. Thermohardening or thermosetting plastics can be brittle or hard and temperature resistant. Thermosets include polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethane, phenolic resins, non-meltable, non-deformable and polyurethane. Polymers and plastics can be tested to measure product quality. The tests measure the weight required to split or break a plastic test material and sample elongation or stretch to that breaking load. The resulting data help to identify product quality and quality control checks for materials.

Plastic testing instruments, universal test machines provide a constant rate of extension because plastic tensile test behaviour is dependent on the speed of the test machine. The specimens loaded on the machines are set as per ASTM, DIN, ISO tensile test specimen dimensions. The Plastic tester machine should always rely on standard terms and conditions. As per ASTM D638, Plastic tensile test standards help to measure strain below 20 percent extension values. High strain can be measured by the machine, digital reader. Thin sheet sample testing is done as per the standard ASTM D882.

A high-quality testing machine is designed to measure the strength of a specific product, test method and product type. A good instrument can be the only solution required for your quality assurance and a worse choice can make you go in the loss too. So choose the instrument smartly.


A Brief Introduction to the Programmable Logic Controller

The term programmable logic controller (PLC) refers to the industrial digital computers that are designed for controlling various manufacturing equipment such as industrial robots, escalators, power stations, and assembly lines. These sophisticated devices are used to control production processes where dependable controls, flexible programming, and ease of troubleshooting is of immense importance.

The significance of industrial computers increases in applications where precision with zero error is critical. Initially, it was the automotive industry that utilized computer-controlled systems in order to replace cam timers and hard-wired relays. Now, computer-driven tools have become a vital part of industrial process control and factory automation.

Unlike personal computers, PLC is capable of performing in harsh industrial environments where temperature, humidity, dust, mechanical shocks and other hazards are prevalent. Manufacturers need a variety of equipment in order to produce a product and make it work for the end users.

All the equipment or devices working on producing something in a facility needs to be organized in terms of time intervals. For instance, in the automobile industry, one device or a set of devices works on painting car exterior and the other machine works on engine parts. One of the functions of an industrial digital computer is to set the specific time frame for machines so that all the processes can be performed in a perfectly harmonious manner.

Industrial computers were introduced in the 1960s and before that, manufacturers relied on cam timers, relays and other similar kinds of devices to streamline their manufacturing processes. They control a wide range of applications from small production systems to large processing plants. Some of the advantages of PLC include:

  • Ease of maintenance and installation
  • Accuracy and dependability
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Low power consumption
  • Higher flexibility and integration

Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, and input & outputs are the three fundamental component of an industrial digital computer. Like in the personal computer, CPU plays the part of a brain in a computer as it performs all the communication, arithmetic, logical and memory related operations. The memory component in PLC operates almost the same way as that of personal computers.

As mentioned earlier, the ability to perform effectively for years in harsh industrial environments is what makes PLCs different from personal computers. A digital computer has to be flexible and configurable. The 21st Century process control expects functional flexibility, superior performance, and a smaller form factor from a control system.

The rapid development in the industrial automation technology has made it possible for manufacturers to produce high-quality products cost-effectively and at large scales. Powerful industrial computers, robots, sensors, intelligent and automated devices are the present and the future of modern industries. It would be hard for industries to stay competitive in future without embracing the modern industrial technologies.


Get Accurate Boat Hulls Thickness for Quality Assurance

Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) is utilized in a large quantity for manufacturing components in the boating industry for two types of boats, work boats and recreational craft. Manufacturers of boats and marine surveyors requires to get accurate hull thickness measurements using a precise wall thickness gauge. Before, unless there was a place to put a micrometre, there was no real way to decide thickness but to penetrate a gap in the body. Present day ultrasonic thickness gauges, be that as it may, make it simple to check the thickness of vessel structures.

Ultrasonic thickness estimations are especially valuable with fiberglass tangle/meandering lay-ups. Varieties in layer thickness make it important to intermittently check thickness. In some cases pontoon structures are made of fiberglass skins sandwiched around an internal centre of balsa wood, stopper, or froth. In those cases, the centre material makes it difficult to make add up to body thickness estimations, since it doesn’t transmit ultrasound, yet the external fiberglass layers can be estimated successfully with ultrasonic hardware.

A wall thickness gauge with the High Penetration programming alternative and 45MG with High Penetration programming are compact gauges equipped for making advanced thickness estimations on fiberglass. They are ordinarily utilized with a M2008 transducer (500 kHz) to boost the entrance of ultrasound in thick or weakening fiberglass, giving a thickness estimation scope of around from 0.150 in. to 3 in. (4 mm to 75 mm), contingent upon the sort of fiberglass. In particularly difficult cases, the progressed 38DL PLUS thickness gauge with the high entrance transducer choice and vast waveform show is prescribed. This design empowers administrators to alter setup parameters on location. Transducers, for example, the M1036 (2.25 MHz) or M109 (5 MHz) can gauge down to roughly 0.050 in. (1.25 mm) in fiberglass.

The 38DL PLUS gauge with the HP choice and the 45MG gauge with the HP choice both have pre-customized default setups for the two transducers most generally utilized for fiberglass estimation, the M2008 and M1036. Much of the time, these default setups can be utilized with no further change, only the two-point speed and zero adjustment that is suggested for all ultrasonic thickness estimations.

The fiberglass utilized as a part of vessel development is by and large of high calibre, and not at all like some different fiberglass overlays does it as a rule not create high sufficiency inside reflections that can cause false readings. In any case, if false readings are seen in a specific case, the circumstance can generally be remedied by little changes of the underlying addition and TDG incline as sketched out in the gauge working manuals. The 38DL PLUS thickness gauge waveforms beneath demonstrate a commonplace hang up on inward reflections, and a right perusing of aggregate structure thickness following a basic pick up modification.


5 Different Types of Printed Circuit Boards

A printed circuit board (PCB) is a standard component in many different electronic gadgets, such as computers, radars, beepers, etc. They are made from a variety of materials with laminate, composite and fiberglass the most common. Also, the type of circuit board can vary with the intended use. Let’s take a look at five of the different types:

Single sided – this is the most typical circuit board and is built with a single layer or base material. The single layer is coated with a conductive material like copper. They may also have a silk screen coat or a protective solder mask on top of the copper layer. A great advantage of this type of PCB is the low production cost and they are often used in mass-produced items.

Double sided – this is much like the single sided, but has the conductive material on both sides. There are many holes in the board to make it easy to attach metal parts from the top to bottom side. This type of circuit board increases operational flexibility and is a practical option to build the more dense circuit designs. This board is also relatively low-cost. However, it still isn’t a practical option for the most complex circuits and is unable to work with technology that reduces electromagnetic interference. They are typically used in amplifiers, power monitoring systems, and testing equipment.

Multi-layer – the multi-layer circuit board is built with extra layers of conductive materials. The high number of layers which can reach 30 or more means it is possible to create a circuit design with very high flexibility. The individual layers are separated by special insulating materials and substrate board. A great benefit of this type of board is the compact size, which helps to save space and weight in a relatively small product. Also, they are mostly used when it is necessary to use a high-speed circuit.

Flexible – this is a very versatile circuit board. It is not only designed with a flexible layer, but also available in the single, double, or multi-layer boards. They are a great option when it is necessary to save space and weight when building a particular device. Also, they are appreciated for high ductility and low mass. However, the flexible nature of the board can make them more difficult to use.

Rigid – the rigid circuit board is built with a solid, non-flexible material for its layers. They are typically compact in size and able to handle the complex circuit designs. Plus, the signal paths are easy to organize and the ability to maintain and repair is quite straightforward.


Keep Logistics in Mind When Deciding on a Manufacturer

When businesses have a shortlist of potential manufacturers, they should consider the logistic aspect of things to come up with a factory that best fits them, and to get in touch with the manufacturers to ask some questions prior to requesting for a quotation. When sending an email to manufacturers to get additional information, the questions they can ask are as follows:

What are the kind of companies do you work with?

In general, businesses will go for a manufacturer that work with companies like theirs. For instance, if this is a big company that specializes in household appliances, it will choose a factory that works with big companies that concentrate in home appliances. When entrepreneurs create a new technical product, they will favor a factory that works with businesses that also create a similar product. They should see to it that it is ideal by considering the other companies the manufacturer has partnered with.

Are you willing to sign a non-disclosure agreement (NDA)?

In other countries, intellectual property theft is widespread. When a factory does not want to sign an agreement like NDA, it should be removed from the potential partners list. However, an NDA does not necessarily guarantee that a product will not be leaked. To have some leverage against frauds, businesses should have a patent filed in their primary market.

What minimum order quantity (MOQ) do you require?

There is no strict number recommended, but it is crucial for businesses to take their profit margins into consideration. They have to pay for their order whether or not they sell all the units. Prices are usually reduced with higher volumes, therefore it is best to ask the volume that will prompt a price break.

What is your pricing for samples?

A lot of factories will give a sample of current products, provided that businesses are willing to pay shipping and customs fees. However, they should make sure they are agreeable with the sample pricing structure of the manufacturer before deciding on them. They should keep in mind that custom product pricing usually requires customers to pay 50 to 100% for tooling.

What is your turnaround time?

When a business is given a particular date to fulfill an order, they should be able to find a manufacturer that can meet the deadline. They should also consider shipping. If this is their first order of their new product working with new factory, they should give an allowance for their shipping date. Luckily, most of the time, a smaller shipment can be airfreighted earlier than a boat shipment to quickly deliver small orders/samples (if this is the case).

What are your terms of payment?

Before starting a production run, many factories ask for a down payment. This could be a 50% deposit for tooling, and the remaining 50% upon completion. You should stay away from factories who ask them to pay 100% up front.

How do you deal with delays?

It is ideal for a factory to be proactive in terms of preventing delays, and usually, the contract would have a penalty clause that businesses are comfortable with. However, this is harder to implement with vendors in foreign countries. In addition, if the MOQ is not too big, it can be hard to negotiate a penalty clause.


Four Major Wire Termination Techniques

The process of connecting the end point of a wire to any other device to establish a connection is called wire termination. A proper wire termination is crucial in the performance of any device. The demand for higher quality and better design has led to many innovations in wire termination technologies.

However, there are a few methods commonly used for wire termination.

Soldering

Soldering is one of the oldest techniques used. It offers a flexible, corrosion resistant and durable solution. Most soldering units are cost-effective, however, it requires skilled labor and more labor hours generally. One of the main disadvantages of soldering is the safety concerns related to hot irons and molten metal. Soldering is mainly of two types, hand soldering, and flame soldering. Though there are many modern techniques, there are certain wire to board applications for which hand soldering is unavoidable. Soldering is not fast and efficient like many other termination methods, but it is never outdated in the industry and is expected to continue as a standard method in the future.

Insulation-Displacement Connections (IDC)

Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC) is one of the fastest ways to terminate a wire. Through this process, hundreds of wires can be terminated in large patch panels effectively. This technique is a common practice in the telecom industry. IDC is often considered as a top-class solution as these are almost error-free and very clean without chemical usage and insulation. This method is very cost-effective as well. However, these are generally only used for small wires.

Ultrasonic Welding

Ultrasonic welding was primarily used for fusing plastic materials. These days it is also employed to join dissimilar metals such as copper, aluminum and brass in various bonding applications. It is commonly used in harness manufacturing, as it offers lower resistance. It is also used for bonding wire to terminals. These are much expensive and slower than other wire termination technologies. These cannot be used with soft plating like Tin. As this welding technique is highly flexible, these are also deployed in the automotive industry- welding multiple wires to one common point within the chassis.

Crimping

This is the most common and efficient wire termination technique. Crimping offers a clean, fast and highly reliable termination which is mechanically strong. These are used for a higher volume of wire terminations. There are many crimp-to-wire solutions which showcases high performance.


5 Challenges Facing the Industrial & Manufacturing Sector

  • Changing Compliance Regulations & Traceability
  • Relevance
  • Skills Gap
  • Healthcare
  • Environment Concerns

The industrial and manufacturing sector keep evolving and that evolution doesn’t just happen. It’s almost always a direct result of overcoming the challenges that threaten the very existence of the sector. So, are there any challenges that the sector is dealing with currently?

Well, here are 5 challenges the manufacturing sector is currently trying to overcome.

Changing Compliance Regulations & Traceability

Changing regulations have always haunted manufacturers. But, they’re there for a good reason. Without compliance standards, manufacturers could very well end up cutting corners, which ultimately ends up affecting the end consumer.

So, for the sake of things such as quality control or proper waste management, compliance standards need to exist. However, complying with new standards isn’t an easy task for manufacturers. More often than not, they’re a burden and thanks to globalization, manufacturers are also forced to deal with regulations that are unique to each territory.

Manufacturers are also tasked with tracking compliance as well. This means that have to go through the entire supply chain to check for compliance, right from vendors to the end-product that’s sent to the customer.

Relevance

As technology evolves, the rate of innovation increases. But, this also means companies have to rush and that can lead to all kinds of temptations. The urge to skip a step or avoid certain tests can be hard to resist when the goal is to market the product as soon as possible.

But, the last thing a manufacturer needs is to put the business at risk with a low-quality product. So, innovation management becomes a must in these situations. Preferences change by the day and any delay in delivering appropriate solutions can mean the end of everything.

So, manufacturers have to establish a system that allows for the consistent delivery of new ideas and innovation. Only this can sustain manufacturing success.

Skills Gap

As one generation exits the workforce, it makes way for a new generation of workers. This transition is, in itself, quite a challenge. But, things are very different today.

Manufacturers face the challenge of filling up those positions with equally skilled members from the current generation. However, the new generation of employees is simply not skilled enough, making the challenge even harder to overcome. As a result, manufacturers have to develop strategies such as working with the education sector to offer the skills training necessary to fill these positions.

Some manufacturers are also retaining skill by extending the retirement age.

Healthcare

As healthcare costs go up, it becomes very difficult for manufacturers to manage their budgets. For instance, in the US, it’s manufacturers who foot healthcare bills for their employees. But, with costs going up, it is simply not feasible and there are no viable alternatives.

Environmental Concerns

Regulations with regard to sustainable and environmentally safe processes and practices put more strain on the manufacturing process. Whether it’s waste disposal or the regulation of materials, more resources are needed to follow best practices.

As you can see, it’s not exactly easy for the industrial and manufacturing sector. However, manufacturers have to figure out a way to leverage technology and innovative ideas to keep up with the changes that pose a threat to them.


Applications of Stainless Steel Plates, Alloy Steel Bars & More

Where and how are these forms of steel used? If you have ever given a thought to the rust free and sparkling clean look of elevators, escalators or structures of railway stations, metro stations or industrial plants then you must know the reason for the same; it is all due to the use of alloy steel round bars. A combination of several metals along with steel goes into the making of alloy steel which gets its anti-rust properties, resiliency and durability. Construction projects, transportation, mining, dairy processing and many more industries require alloy steel bars in large quantities.

Casing pipes are another application of steel which performs the important function of providing protection to below- the- ground utility lines such as water mains, fiber optic cables, electrical power cables, gas pipes etc. The utility lines remain safe and protected inside the casing pipes which surrounds them and closes the ends with its pull on caps made of rubber. The casing pipes come in varied forms like the straight seam, rolled type, welded or spiral weld and for all types strict quality controls are maintained to ensure that they have the required concentricity, tensile strength, straightness tolerances and minimum yield. Some of the applications which cannot do without them are water well casing, culverts casing, road bore casing and most important of all, casing pipes for oil and gas transmission.

Stainless steel plates are termed as anti-corrosive steel as it does not get rusted or corroded as fast as regular carbon steel, though however, you cannot claim it to be corrosion-proof. Its anti-oxidation property makes it a popular choice in applications requiring low maintenance and anti-corrosive qualities. Functioning as shields for contemporary construction design to the food and beverage industry, pharmaceutical industry, petro-chemical and chemical plants, fuel tankers, chemical tankers and more, stainless steel is an all pervading requirement. In the automobile industry, stainless steel plates give the required strength and durability to pass through crash testing. In aviation industry, structural sections for military vehicles, trucks, railways, ships are built from this metal while it is the favorite in chemical and related industry because of its anti-corrosive and low maintenance requirement.

As for the API 5L Gr B pipes they are an indispensable item for ensuring integrity of pipelines in the oil and gas industry. Pipelines are the foundation pillars of this industry and any flaws left undetected in the pipes can cause a catastrophe. The API 5L Gr B pipes have to comply with standards set by International Organization for Standardization ISO 3183.